What is cancer? What are the symptoms and how to prevent?

Cancer is a disease caused by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells in the body. These cells can form tumors, invade nearby tissues, and spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. When you start feeling the above symptoms you must concern with a doctor.



The symptoms of cancer can vary depending on the type and location of cancer, but some common symptoms include:

  • Fatigue
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Pain in the affected area
  • Skin changes, such as yellowing or darkening
  • Changes in bowel or bladder habits
  • Persistent cough or hoarseness
  • Difficulty swallowing


Cancer is a complex disease, and its causes are not entirely understood. However, there are several known risk factors that can increase a person’s likelihood of developing cancer. These include:

  1. Age: Cancer is more common in older adults, as the risk of developing the disease increases with age.
  2. Genetic mutations: Certain genetic mutations can increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer or ovarian cancer.
  3. Exposure to carcinogens: Exposure to certain chemicals and substances, such as tobacco smoke, radiation, and asbestos, can damage DNA and increase the risk of cancer.
  4. Unhealthy lifestyle habits: Poor diet, lack of physical activity, and excessive alcohol consumption can increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer.
  5. Chronic infections: Certain chronic infections, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) and hepatitis B or C, can increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer.

It’s important to note that not everyone who is exposed to these risk factors will develop cancer, and some people may develop cancer without having any known risk factors. However, by avoiding known risk factors and adopting healthy lifestyle habits, individuals can help reduce their risk of developing cancer. Additionally, regular cancer screenings and early detection can help improve the chances of successful treatment.


There are many types of cancer, each of which is characterized by the type of cell that initially becomes cancerous, as well as the area of the body in which the cancer develops. Some of the most common types of cancer include:

  1. Carcinoma: This type of cancer begins in the cells that line the body’s internal and external surfaces, such as the skin, lungs, and digestive tract.
  2. Sarcoma: This type of cancer develops in the connective tissues, such as bones, muscles, and cartilage.
  3. Leukemia: This type of cancer starts in blood-forming cells, such as those in the bone marrow, and can lead to the overproduction of abnormal blood cells.
  4. Lymphoma: This type of cancer begins in the lymphatic system, which is responsible for producing and transporting white blood cells that help fight infections.
  5. Brain and spinal cord cancers: These cancers develop in the brain and spinal cord tissues, which control various bodily functions.
  6. Germ cell tumors: These tumors develop in the cells that produce eggs or sperm and can occur in the ovaries or testes.
  7. Neuroendocrine tumors: These tumors arise from cells that produce hormones and can occur in various parts of the body, such as the pancreas, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract.

It’s important to note that there are many subtypes and variations of each of these types of cancer, and each may require specific treatments and management strategies.


Cancer treatment may also vary depending on the type and stage of cancer, but some common treatments include:

  • Surgery to remove cancerous tissue


  • Radiation therapy to kill cancer cells with high-energy radiation: Radiation therapy uses high-energy particles or waves, such as x-rays, gamma rays, electron beams, or protons, to destroy or damage cancer cells.


  • Immunotherapy to stimulate the body’s immune system to fight cancer: Immunotherapy is a broad category of cancer therapies that triggers the body’s immune system to fight cancer cells. Cancer cells are different from normal cells, in that they do not die normally. They rapidly divide like an out-of-control copy machine that won’t stop creating images.


  • Targeted therapy to block specific molecules that help cancer cells grow: Targeted therapy is a type of cancer treatment that targets proteins that control how cancer cells grow, divide, and spread. It is the foundation of precision medicine. As researchers learn more about the DNA changes and proteins that drive cancer, they are better able to design treatments that target these proteins. https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/types/targeted-therapies#:~:text=Targeted%20therapy%20is%20a%20type,treatments%20that%20target%20these%20proteins
  • Chemotherapy to destroy cancer cells with drugs:  is a type of cancer treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells. https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/types/chemotherapy#:~:text=Chemotherapy%20works%20against%20cancer%20by%20killing%20fast%2Dgrowing%20cancer%20cells.&text=Chemotherapy%20(also%20called%20chemo)%20is,drugs%20to%20kill%20cancer%20cells.

It’s important to note that early detection of cancer can greatly increase the chances of successful treatment, so it’s important to have regular check-ups with your doctor and to seek medical attention if you notice any symptoms of concern.


While it’s not always possible to prevent cancer, there are several steps individuals can take to reduce their risk of developing the disease. Some of these steps include:

  1. Adopting a healthy lifestyle: Eating a healthy diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, exercising regularly, and avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption can help reduce the risk of developing cancer.
  2. Protecting yourself from the sun: Exposure to the sun’s harmful UV rays can increase the risk of skin cancer. Wearing protective clothing and using sunscreen with at least SPF 30 can help reduce the risk of skin cancer.
  3. Getting vaccinated: Vaccines can help reduce the risk of certain types of cancer, such as the HPV vaccine, which can help prevent certain types of cervical cancer.
  4. Regular cancer screenings: Regular cancer screenings, such as mammograms and colonoscopies, can help detect cancer early, when it is most treatable.
  5. Managing chronic conditions: Certain chronic conditions, such as diabetes and inflammatory bowel disease, can increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer. Managing these conditions with proper medical care can help reduce the risk of cancer.

It’s important to note that while these steps can help reduce the risk of cancer, they cannot guarantee that a person will not develop the disease.

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